Development and Psychometric Properties of the Taiwan Attitude toward Aging Questionnaire (TAAQ)Facilities
關鍵詞 Key words : 老化態度;老化自我覺知;臨床評估工具;老年心理學;attitude toward aging;self-perception of aging;clinical assessment tool;geropsychology
研究目的：過去研究發現「老化態度」是預測個人存活與身心健康的重要因素。然因我國缺少相關測量工具，故本研究目的為發展一可測量老化態度的「臺灣老化態度量表(Taiwan Attitude toward Aging Questionnaire, TAAQ)」。研究方法：本研究回顧相關量表與研究後，完成TAAQ(16題)的初步編製。後續邀請2010至2012年間參與門診研究之老年人填答此量表，收得255人的資料，其中41名於三個月後進行再測評估。分析上將資料隨機分為兩組進行探索性與驗證性因素分析，以Cronbach's α評估內部一致性，並選擇恰當量表評估效標關聯效度。研究結果：探索性因素分析結果得到「負向老化自我覺知」與「正向老化自我覺知」兩個因素，各因素之內部一致性係數分別為.78與.80，三個月之再測信度分別為.79與.81。驗證性因素分析結果顯示此二因素模式具有良好之模式適配度；而各效標亦與TAAQ的兩個因素有合理的顯著相關性。研究結論：臺灣老化態度量表具有可接受的初步信效度資料，是一可靠、可茲利用作為了解、評估臺灣人老化態度的臨床評估工具。
Purpose: Several studies have found that a person's attitude toward aging is a significant predictor of survival, physical health, and psychological health. However, there are no suitable scales for evaluating attitude toward aging in Taiwan. The purpose of this present study is to develop the Taiwan Attitude toward Aging Questionnaire (TAAQ) to meet this need. Method: After reviewing relevant inventories and studies, we developed 16 items to form the TAAQ. From 2010-2012, a total of 255 participants (mean age 77.39, 52.2% female) from a comprehensive geriatric assessment outpatient study filled out the TAAQ. A total of 41 of them were retested during their regular 3-month follow-up. We randomly split the sample into two groups to analyze the data. Group 1 was used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA, n=128). Group 2 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n=127). Cronbach's α was used to evaluate internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was calculated for test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was assessed through comparison with the following scales: 1) the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), 2) the Barthel Index, 3) the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), 4) the WONCA/COOP scale, 5) the Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS), and 6) the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Results: The EFA revealed that the TAAQ consists of 2 factors: Negative Self-Perception of Aging (NSPA) and Positive Self-Perception of Aging (PSPA). The Cronbach's αs of these two factors were .78 and .80, respectively, with 3-month test-retest reliabilities of .79 and .81. The results of the CFA showed that the 2-factor model was acceptable with good overallmodel fit (x^2=111.75, p=.218, GFI=0.90, CFI=0.97, RMSEA=0.03, and SRMR=0.06), which indicates that the TAAQ has sound construct validity. The correlational analyses showed that the TAAQ has proper criterion-related validity. PSPA had significant positive correlations with the PGCMS (r=.39), the Barthel Index (r=.25), and the IADL (r=.33), while NSPA had significant negative correlations with them (PGCMS, r=-.53; Barthel Index, r=-.27; and IADL, r=- .32). PSPA had significant negative correlations with the WONCA/COOP (r=-.37), the BSRS(r=-.33), and the GDS-15 (r=-.57), while NSPA had significant positive correlations with them (WONCA/COOP, r=.42; BSRS, r=.41; and GDS-15, r=.58). Furthermore, after partialing out PSPA, NSPA still had significant correlations with the PGCMS (r=-.43), the Barthel Index (r=-.16), the IADL (r=-.16), the WONCA/COOP (r=.28), the BSRS (r=.28), and the GDS-15 (r=.38). Conclusions: Our preliminary results showed that the TAAQ has good psychometric properties, with good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. It is a useful tool to evaluate attitude toward aging in Taiwan, even in clinical settings.